What is a blood chemistry test?
Blood chemistry testing involves the extraction and centrifugation of a sample of a patient’s blood. Various chemical compounds are present in the body that can provide information about a person’s health status and diagnose any illnesses, allowing for timely treatment.
A basic blood chemistry test can examine three to six elements such as glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides. However, depending on the doctor or specialist’s specifications, this analysis may be extended to 32 elements.
Basic compounds in blood chemistry testing
- Glucose: Indicates the presence of type I and II diabetes in the patient, as well as high or low levels of glucose in the blood related to other conditions. The optimal glucose values are 70-110 mg/dL.
- Urea: Detects if there is decreased renal function. It is a residue resulting from the natural breakdown of proteins. The kidneys filter urea from the blood, but when they are damaged, levels of this compound may increase or decrease. The optimal urea values are less than 40mg/dL.
- Creatinine: Monitors kidney function. Levels of this compound help to determine the functioning of the kidneys. Optimal values are less than 0.96mg/dL for women and less than 1.3mg/dL for men.
- Uric acid: Indicates elevated levels of uric acid resulting from a diet high in protein that accumulates in tissues, leading to the disease known as “Gout.” Elevated levels may also be indicative of renal insufficiency or the presence of kidney stones. Optimal values for women are 2.5-6 mg/dL, and for men are 4.5-8 mg/dL.
- Cholesterol: Shows if there is a risk of cardiovascular disease and diagnoses cardiovascular diseases that occur when arteries have excess fat that damages regular organ function. Optimal values are less than 200 mg/dL.
- Triglycerides: Measures the levels of fat in the body that can lead to coronary artery disease. Optimal values are less than 100 mg/dL.