Previously we talked about the different vaccines designed and approved at the moment.
We also reported on the phases of vaccination in the Mexican Republic and approximate numbers of vaccines to expect.
Importance of Prevention through Vaccines
Vaccines are designed for the prevention of different diseases.
They shield the body from exposure to a foreign body in order to recognize it and prevent it from causing the harmful effects associated with it.
As mentioned in “Importance of vaccines: Phases, elaboration and conservation”.
There are different ways in which vaccines can be made and, once understood, we will have an idea of the method used to generate immunity against coronavirus disease.
COVID-19 vaccines and their impact so far
In addition to the drugs under study to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Another strong point is the research and clinical trials of preventive methods such as designed vaccines.
In “Vaccines against COVID-19: the race between the pharmaceutical companies” we refer to:
As the main referent companies in the development of the most outstanding vaccines.
Mention was also made of other companies that were producing and studying their own vaccines.
At the end of last year, the first doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered and to date more than 600 million doses have been administered worldwide.
This number can vary in a matter of hours because the vaccines are constantly being administered.
Vaccines in study phases and with better results.
To date, 85 vaccines are in human clinical trials.
While 184 vaccines are in pre-clinical trials and are still being studied in animal models.
Although there is a large number of vaccines, one must consider the variants and problems that may arise during testing.
Not only at the medical level but also at the economic level, which would be exponentially detrimental to continue with the analysis of a vaccine.
This is mentioned because there are records of 4 vaccines that abandoned their study phase.
The 85 vaccines are dispersed among the study phases and currently 23 of these are in the lead as they are in the last stages of research.
Among the pharmaceutical companies that stand out for the great progress of their vaccines are those made by the companies Novavax and Janssen, which were recently approved.
Likewise, companies such as:
- Johnson & Johnson
Have developed their own vaccines which were approved by part of the FDA for emergency use.
And they add to the short list of vaccines available for administration.
Also to be considered are companies that are on a steady pace due to the excellent results of their vaccines in Phase 3 studies such as:
- Vector Institute
- Anhui Zhifei Longcom
- Finlay Vaccine Institute
- among others.
This represents an advantage for those countries where not enough doses have been applied in relation to the population.
It is now possible to further extend the vaccination margin and benefit people through timely access to the different vaccines.
It should be clarified that the performance of each vaccine depends on:
the dose of administration
- its effectiveness
- to whom it is directed.
For example, the Pfizer & BioNTech vaccine requires only two doses and after the second dose, 90% protection against the coronavirus is exceeded.
Another point to take into account is the use of vaccines in pregnant women.
For the time being, all FDA-approved vaccines against COVID-19 can be administered to these pregnant and lactating women without any risk.
Only contemplating the side effects provoked after the inoculation of the vaccine.
How do you know if a vaccine is considered effective?
The study phases of vaccines help to evaluate the activity they have in the organism.
Indicating the number of people who obtained the desired immunity.
The adverse effects developed after its use and the efficacy it had against the pathogen in question.
In order to obtain information about how the body’s defenses respond.
The studies contemplate the use of the vaccine of importance, placebos and different vaccines that prevent other diseases that together allow identifying the effectiveness that the vaccine had over the other products used.
At the end of all the stages of the study of a vaccine, the characteristics obtained are determined.
The maximum percentage of effectiveness conceived after its administration and if there is the possibility of using it in the population with respect to its safety.
At this point, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) or other organizations in charge of the control of medical products such as vaccines, evaluate whether they are safe and functional enough to be considered acceptable and distributed to the population.
However, they must continue to be studied for any possible complication not presented during the trials.
A particular case occurred with AstraZeneca’s AZD1222 vaccine because people have presented with thrombosis.
A coagulation disorder characterized by solidification of blood in blood vessels and has been associated with the application of this vaccine.
Although it may be considered a side effect of its use, it is a clinical manifestation that was not found during clinical examinations.
As soon as the cases were identified, the administration of the vaccine designed by AstraZeneca was stopped in some countries such as France, Italy and Germany.
In addition, a thorough investigation of the associated risk factors was carried out, ruling out the person’s age, sex and personal history of coagulation disorders as triggering factors.
At the moment it is not known what causes the development of thrombosis, but it is now considered to be a very rare side effect of the vaccine.
Guidelines to follow after vaccination
Speaking only of vaccines designed to prevent COVID-19, a minimum of 2 weeks after inoculation is necessary to consider someone fully vaccinated.
This lapse is required due to the process the body goes through to generate immunity and obtain maximum benefit (efficacy) from the vaccine.
At the same time, there are certain restrictions stipulated with respect to people who were vaccinated and are exposed to unvaccinated subjects.
It is widely recommended to avoid closed places with people, the use of masks and not to expose oneself to risk population such as people over 60 years of age or people with lung diseases.
Emphasizing the importance of going out of the house, it should be remembered that no vaccine against COVID-19 is able to offer 100% protection.
Therefore, care should be taken when traveling or in areas where there are crowds of people.
Outlook of COVID-19 vaccines approved so far
As discussed in “Importance of vaccination in Mexico” and considering the vaccines approved so far, the vaccination window that started in December 2020 will last until the middle of next year.
In addition to this, the time of attention could be reduced if we assume that other pharmaceutical companies promote their vaccines in the Mexican Republic.
The companies that currently supply their vaccines to the country are Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Gamaleya, CanSino and Sinovac.
To date, more than 9 million doses of the available vaccines have been administered in part to medical personnel and adults over 60 years of age.
Following the vaccination protocol, vaccination for the population aged between 59 and 50 years is expected to start in April as planned.
Due to the health issues that the whole world is going through, it is essential for Grupo PACS and Teleradiology to inform about the advances in research and trials on available and soon to be admitted vaccines.
Likewise, it is important for our readers and the population in general to maintain the correct safety measures in case any of the vaccines against COVID-19 have not been administered yet, in order to avoid a greater number of affected people and deaths.